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What is computer in detail?

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What is computer in detail?

A computer is a piece of electrical equipment that can process, store, and retrieve data. One of the most innovative innovations of the modern period, it has had a profound effect on society. The numerous parts of a computer, how they function together, and their uses in various industries will all be covered in this article.

Computers’ Earlier Times

The abacus, created in ancient China circa 500 BC, is credited with inventing computers. The abacus was a straightforward tool for counting and doing mathematical computations. The slide rule, the calculating clock, and the adding machine are just a few of the additional mechanical tools that have been developed over the years to do mathematical calculations.

However, Charles Babbage’s Analytical Engine, created in the middle of the nineteenth century, was the first real computer. The Analytical Engine was a mechanical device that was programmable with punched cards and capable of carrying out sophisticated computations. Despite never being constructed, the Analytical Engine’s architecture served as the model for modern computers.

The ENIAC (Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer), which was created in the US during World War II, was the first electronic computer. The ENIAC, which could complete 5,000 additions per second, was used to compute artillery firing tables. Additionally, it was the first computer to employ binary coding.

A Computer’s Components

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A computer is made up of numerous important parts, each of which is essential to its operation. These elements consist of:

Central Processing Unit (CPU):

The CPU is the computer’s brain and is in charge of carrying out commands. It is often found on the motherboard and is also referred to as the processor.


While the CPU is processing them, data and instructions are temporarily stored in memory. Random Access Memory (RAM) and Read-Only Memory (ROM) are the two different forms of memory.

Storage Tools:

Data is permanently stored using storage tools. They comprise optical drives, solid-state drives, and hard disc drives.

Data entry is done via input devices when using a computer. They consist of microphones, scanners, mice, and keyboards.

Output Devices:

Data from the computer is displayed or sent via output devices. They consist of speakers, printers, and monitors.

The motherboard, which links all the other components to it, is the computer’s main circuit board.

A Computer’s Operation

A computer operates by carrying out a series of stored instructions. A compiler or interpreter converts these instructions from a programming language into machine code. The CPU then carries out these commands sequentially, applying arithmetic and logical operations to the data.

The CPU reads instructions from memory and carries out each one individually. To do this, an instruction is first loaded into a register, after which it is decoded to identify the operation to be carried out, the operation is then carried out, and the outcome is then stored in memory or a register.

The Uses Of Computers

From home computing to scientific research, computers are utilised in a variety of tasks. Computers are used for a variety of purposes, including the following:

Personal Computing:

Activities including word processing, online browsing, and email are performed on computers.

Computers are employed in the corporate world to perform tasks including bookkeeping, inventory control, and customer relationship management.


Computers are utilised in educational settings for tasks including online learning, data processing, and research.

Science And Engineering:

Simulations, modelling, and data analysis are examples of engineering jobs that are performed on computers.


Activities like gaming, multimedia creation, and virtual reality all make use of computers.

The way we work, study, and play has been revolutionised by computers, which are sophisticated electrical devices.

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